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IN 1587. 







OF all the expeditions undertaken by Sir Francis Drake that of 
1587 when he was reluctantly dispatched by his perplexed sove- 
reign to Spain, to curb the gigantic preparations of Philip the 
Second for the invasion of this country must be acknowledged as 
the most happy in its conceptions, and the most brilliant in its 

In less than two months from the time of his departure from 
Plymouth, the intrepid admiral completely swept from the coasts of 
Gallicia, Portugal, and Andalusia every description of craft, from 
the formidable galley to the humble trawl, bearing the flag of, or 
politically connected with, the dynasty of Spain. 

Drake's achievements in that brief space of time are absolutely 
unparalleled in the annals of naval warfare. In his rapid progress 
he annihilated the tunny fishery, upon the annual success of which 
the Spanish nation almost exclusively depended during Lent and 
other seasons of abstinence. To a devoted Catholic nation such a 
loss, in that age, was a serious if not irreparable calamity. In the 
harbour of Cadiz he destroyed ten thousand tons of shipping, besides 
warlike stores and provisions of incalculable value, which had been 
laboriously gathered from the widely-spread dominions of Philip, 
and from other countries in alliance with the crown of Spain, to 
furnish supplies for the renowned, and so-called " Invincible," 

The signal discomfiture and loss inflicted upon the Spaniards 


necessitated a postponement of their long-meditated invasion of our 
shores; whilst England, by the activity, courage, and skill of Drake, 
gained an additional twelvemonth for making preparation to resist 
her formidable and implacable foes ; but that which was of infinitely 
greater importance, her gallant sea-captain had fairly tested the 
vaunted superiority of the large Spanish galleys, and taught his 
followers to despise them. In a few hours he demonstrated their 
unfitness to cope with the lighter vessels of Britain. Such a lesson 
was not lost upon his countrymen in the following year, when 
Drake saw the fulfilment of his boast, that four of the Queen's 
ships were more than a match for the new-fangled and unwieldy 
argosies of Spain. 

This terrible visitation on the coasts of the Spanish monarch 
Drake, who appears to have been as witty as he was bold, was wont 
jocosely to term " the singeing of King Philip's beard" 

From Cadiz Sir Francis directed his course towards the Azores, 
where his customary good fortune attended him. Off the island of 
Terceira he fell in with and captured a stupendous and richly -laden 
carrack, returning from a lengthened voyage to the East Indies. 
As well from the commodities as from the journal, charts, and other 
papers and documents found on board that prize, our merchants 
learned for the first time the immense commercial resources of the 
East. It was, in fact, the capture of this magnificent vessel that 
suggested the first idea of establishing the East India Company. 
The name of Drake, although he did not live to see the company 
incorporated by royal charter, is thus identified with the most 
superb acquisition of the British crown. 

Successful and brilliant as were the results of this memorable 
expedition, it is very remarkable that fewer details of it are generally 
known than of any other in which Drake had a share. With the 


exception of the brief account in Hakluyt, and a briefer one 
contained in a contemporary tract preserved in the Grenville Library, 
and asserted to be unique, entitled "Neives out of the Coasts of 
Spain." 4 Land., 1587, (which no doubt was written by Captain 
Thomas Fenner, vice-admiral in succession to Captain Burrough,) 
nothing further with respect to this expedition has been published. 

As the present relation contains the fullest particulars, both with 
respect to the attack upon the previously conceived impregnable 
harbour of Cadiz, and the fortunate seizure of the treasure-laden San 
Philippe, it necessarily constitutes an equally important and 
interesting addition to our naval history. 

Of Robert Leng, the author of the following pages, nothing 
whatever is known. 

It is not improbable that he was one of the volunteer soldiers to 
whom Drake makes allusion in his letter to the Council under date 
of March 3, 1587 : " There are here at this presente [in Plymouth] a 
great nomber of goode and serviceable soldyers, which voluntarilie 
have resorted hither to serve in this action, as this bearer, Captaine 
Marchaunte, who hath scene the trayninge of them, can geive your 
Lordships to understande." (Add. MS. 9294, fol. 136.) And again in 
his letter to Walsingham of the 2nd of April following: " If your 
.honor did now se the flett under sayell, and knew with what resollu- 
cyon men's mynds dow enter into this accyon, as your honor would 
rejoyce to se them, so ye would judge a small force would not devyd 
them. I asure your honor, uppon my credytt, ther are many 
suffycyent men in this accyon, yeat there hath dyvers start from us 
within this tow dayes past, and we all thinck by some practys of 
some adversaryes to the accyon, by letters written ; they are most 
maryners; we have soldyers in their place." (Dom. Corresp. S. P. 0.) 

In spite of these cowardly desertions, there were many stout and 


valiant hearts left behind, to accompany the naval hero to the scene 
of his successes, amongst whom we may number the penman of 
this narrative. 

Seaman, soldier, or gentleman-adventurer, allured to sea by the 
brilliant reputation of Drake, this was manifestly his primary 
voyage. His plain, straightforward, and sailor- like story, which 
differs in no essential particular from what is known of the expedi- 
tion, is a guarantee for his accuracy and faithfulness. He fills in a 
picture of which before we possessed only the bare outline. 

Unpretending, whether in his capacity of soldier or writer, he 
reminds the reader that he is " wanting in both learning and skill in 
arms ;" nevertheless a history such as this, coming to us fresh from 
the pen of one of the devoted followers of Drake, can scarcely fail, 
from its terseness and simplicity, to be attractive to most readers. 

Leng's unbounded admiration of his commander is an additional 
proof (were it needed) of the singular estimation in which that 
greatest of sea-captains was held by his men, and the entire narrative 
tends (indirectly at least) to show how unjust were the prejudices 
which the peace-party in the divided Court of Elizabeth, at the 
most critical juncture in her reign, entertained against him. 

Drake, by virtue of a commission, was no sooner despatched upon 
his errand, than (with the vacillating policy of the Queen's advisers) 
a missive was hastened after him, urging a more moderate routine 
of hostilities, and doubtless considerably qualifying the previous 

Sir James Croft, the Comptroller of the Eoyal Household, than 
whom no one entertained a stronger prejudice or exhibited more 
determined animosity against Drake for his audacious proceedings 
in the Indies, fearing a repetition of his conduct upon the Spanis 
coast, which would inevitably destroy all hope of effecting a treaty 


of peace, actually carried his opposition so far as to publicly accuse 
the Admiral of defrauding her Majesty of treasure, in jewels and 
bullion, to an almost fabulous amount, and corrupting with his ill- 
gotten spoils not a few officers in her navy. It is scarcely necessary 
to add that this desperate scheme of the Comptroller for preventing 
the sailing of Drake, even for an hour, utterly failed. No credence 
whatever was attached to his extraordinary accusation ; it passed 
unheeded alike by the Council and the public. 

To have traced this original commission and instructions, under 
the Queen's hand would have been important, as manifesting the 
full extent of authority committed to the commander of the expedi- 
tion ; but unfortunately research has been without avail to discover 
any record of the same, none appearing to exist other than the date 
quoted in the " Agreement with the Merchant Adventurers," and a 
kind of abstract to be found in a letter from Burroughs to Drake 
dated 30 April, 1587, in these words: "As I take it, the substaunce 
of the scope that is given you [Drake] is this, for that by information 
the kinge of Spaine is preparinge a greate armie by sea, parte at 
Lisbone and other in Andolozia, and within the streightes, all which 
was judged should meete at Lisbone, and the same to come for Eng- 
land or some parte of her Ma tes domynions, her Ma tes pleaseur is by 
advise of her highnes counsaile that you, with these shippes now 
under your charge, should come hether to this cape and uppon this 
coaste, and seeke by all the best meanes you can to impeache there 
purpose and stoppe theare meetinge at Lisbone (if it might be), 
whereof the manner how is referred' to your discression. This is the 
effect of your instruccions as I remember, &c. * * * I doe not 
finde by your instruccions any advice to lande, but I remember 
a speciall caviatt and advice given you to the contrarie by the Lord 
Highe Admirall." 


The despatch sent after the captain of the fleet, advocating a 
milder and more temperate course of action, never reached him : 
adverse winds enforced the messenger to come home, and the govern- 
ment, unable to punish the humble bearer of their letters, in its 
eagerness to appease foreign policy, threw the entire odium of the 
matter upon Drake, avowing its intention, on his return, to call 
him to account for that which, in its own estimation, was little else 
than an act of daring and unauthorised piracy. 

The Editor has been fortunate enough to discover, not only the 
bill of lading of the San Philippe, but also various statements of 
the actual amount of treasure which Drake and his companions 
brought home with them in the summer of 1587, together with 
some few other unpublished papers bearing upon the same expedi- 
tion. Two letters, moreover, from Sir Francis himself, affording 
his own description of the attack, the which are already in print 
(but in tracts so rare and curious that it may well excuse their 
re-production), must not pass unnoticed. These he has thrown into 
an Appendix, as illustrative of the text ; and trusts that they will be 
considered useful and interesting adjuncts to the modest and un- 
varnished narration of Robert Leng. 


Denmark Road, Camberwell, 
September 1, 1862. 

Anno Domini 1587. Annoque Regni Regine Elizabethe 

xxix . 

The true Discripcion of the last voiage of 

that worthy Captayne, Sir Frauncis 

Drake, knight, with his service 

done against the Spanyardes ; 

collected by Roberte 

Leng, gentleman, 

one of the said 




To the Right Honorable Arthur, 

Lord Grey of Wilton, and 

Knight of the most honorable 

Order of the Garter, Roberte 

Leng wysheth increase 

of honor and all 


Consyderinge, (Eight honorable,) that the loue of our country serves 
for a touchstone to trye the pretious nature of true nobility e, whome 
truth hath puryfied in her burninge fornace ; I was incyted by the 
zeale I beare you to present yow with theise fewe crookeed lynes, 
the pythe whereof discribes the true voiage of that worthy knight, 
Sir Frauncis Drake, in whose company my self, being one of the 
least yett in affeccion agreable to the best, earnestly desyerd to 
patronage this copye under your honors proteccion ; knowing that 
wysdom wynckes att small faultes, where the foolyshe make all 
faultes. Thus, hopeinge of your favorable acceptaunce, I comytt 
your honor's happy enterpryces to the guidinge of the Allmightye. 

Your honor's to comaunde, 


Quo semel est imbuta recens servabit odorem 

Testa din. 

[Hor. Epist. lib. i. Epist. ii. 69.] 


IT is imagined by the Poetes, gentle reader, that Minarva the 
goddesse of Learninge was paynted with a speare and a shelde, 
thereby intendinge that, as she favored learninge, soe she guided 
the course of warr. Off whome althoughe my selfe am not 
worthye to be protected, (being soe sacred and syncere a goddesse,) 
wantinge both learninge and skyll in armes : yett herein am I bold- 
ened, by the courtesye of your favors, to shadowe my accions, and the 
full effect of theise my enterprices under your frendly judgementes; 
which I hope you will not misinterprett, consyderinge yt contayneth 
the excellent prowesse of soe martiall a man, whose worthye actes 
may commende him for pollycye a secondeVlisses, for martiall affayres 
an other Hector, and for profitable goverment a new Licurgus : which 
shyninge vertues (to illustrate soe blessed a comon welth,) may 
neyther by right be obscured nor hindred to sett fourth the comfort- 
able brightnes thereof. Theise causes, friendly reader, (rather then 
my owne devyse,) make me presume to present unto your discretions 
this true discourse, warranted with the sayinge of that mirror Alex- 
ander, who lyked the rude poemes of wytlesse Cherillus because they 
contayne the happynes of Homer. 

Your lovinge frend, 

Ko: LENG. 


WHEKEAS yt hath bene th'order of all antiant orators, in the behalfe 
of the honor and credytt of every of there severall provinces and 
country es, to regester, imbooke, or incronicle all such worthy e 
persons, both for prowesse and pollycye, as by there valyant actes 
have deserved perpetuall remembraunce of there worthynes : soe I 
have thought good (thoughe farr inferior in learninge or eloquence 
to any of theise learned orators, yett not behynd them in good will), 
to sett fourth in particularytyes the most noble actes and attemptes 
of our valyant and fortunate Champyon, Sir Frauncis Drake, knight. 
The which he hath done of late with his courragious company to his 
and there great honor, the comodytye and credytt of there countrye; 
the lyke never in any age done by any subject, which, to them that 
have not sene them or bene att the doeinge thereof, might seame 
most incledible or att the least most invincible : and which were 
great obsurdytye for us his frendes and countrymen to drowne in the 
syncke of oblivion, whereby our poster [it]ye shoulde condem, eyther 
our ignoraunce in disablynge us, or our folly in not discribinge the 
worthynes of his magnanimtye, for th'incouragement and credytt of 
them and country hereafter. My selfe, amongst the least, being 
loth that soe valiant a man shoulde be forgotten, havinge bene in 
this his last voiage and sene his worthynes therein, have boldely 
taken upon me (thoughe unlearned) to sett downe in this my booke 
his particuler and most valyant actes and exploites, as truly as my 
remembraunce will geve me leave : more respectinge to have his 
name to be had in famous remembraunce, then eyther comendacions 
to my selfe (which my desertes cannot obtayne,) or the feare of the 
envious reporte of the malitious, who had rather have all men deade 
men, lyke them selves, then that they shoulde lyve in future 


remembraunce of our posterytye ; th'effect whereof as breeffly as I 
can gather hereafter followeth. 

On the fyrst day of Aprill, beinge Satterday, our Generall, Sir 
Frauncis Drake, havinge stayed att Plymouth 8 dayes fully to 
furnishe his flete ; the next day followinge, beinge Sonday, and 
the seconnde day of the same mounth, we all put out to sea, in 
number 25 sayle: videlicet, the Elizabeth-Bonaventor, admirall; the 
Golden Lyon, vize-admirall ; the Dreade-naughte, reare admirall; 
and the Raynebowe: theise 4 the Queen Majesties shipps, the rest 
beinge marchaunt shipps and pynnisses. And soe, kepinge our course 
towardes Portugall, on Monday the 3. day in the forenone, (havinge 
a faire wynde,) we had in chasse two sayles, who in shorte space we 
brought under our lee ; who, being 2 men of war of Lyme, our 
generall comaunded them to attende his flete for better assystaunce 
in his voiage, to whose courteous comaundement they willingly 
obayed ; and on Wednesday next, the 5. of the same mounth, we 
discried the lande of Galizia, and costinge towardes the North Cape 
within 2 dayes followinge we were dryven by extremitye of wether 
to sea, where for the space of T dayes in a tempest we were tossed, 
in which saide tempest we lost a lytle pynnisse called the Martigo, 
and all our flete severally disperced; but, (God be thanked !) by the 
carefull advice and comaundement of our Generall, within one day 
and a night after we were all gathered together againe. And 
kepeinge our course towards the South Cape, on the 17. day of 
Aprill, we sayled by yt : dyverse of our small barkes and pynnisses 
shoreinge in, and chasseinge within there bayes there small barkes 
and carvells, and Avhere we tooke one ; and so from thence we bore 
on to the Estwardes, and on Wednesday in th'afternone, the 19. of 
the same mounth, we arryved within the rode att Cales, where we 
founde a great flete of shippes rydeing. Soe sone as we were 
discried, 2 of there gallyes made towardes us, and, judging what we 
were, they made haste into shore againe, not offeringe to shoote one 
shott att us ; yett, before they coulde retorne, our Admirall with 


others of our flette shott them thorowe, and slew ten of there men : 
presently there came fourth from the towne ten other gallyes, and 
foughte with us, but we applyed them soe well with our great 
ordenaunce, that two of them were fayne to be hay led up that night. 
In the meane tyme the marchaunt ryall and the rest of the 
marchaunte shipps, our flete, made staye of dyverse of there shipps, 
which had cutt there cables, and hoiste there sayles, to have gotten 
over to Porte Ryall, St. Mary Porte, and to other harbors nighe 
there unto. Some escaped, but most of them were stayed, whome 
when we boorded, moste of there men leaped into the rode and swym 
to shore. The same night our generall, havinge, by Godes good 
favor and sufference, good opportunitye to ponishe the enemye of 
Godes true Gospell and our dayly adversarye, and further willinge 
to discharge his expected dutye towardes God, his prynce, and 
country, begun to synck and fyer dyverse of there shipps. 
Amongst which there was one argocye sunck, (sore against all our 
wills,) which had in her as yt was reported 36 brasse peces. 

The next day the Gallyes made dy vers bravadoies upon us ; the 
towne and other there fortes also played upon us all the day longe, 
but did us lytle hurte ; savinge that the master gunner of the 
Golden Lyon had his legg broke with a shott from the towne. 
The same day and nyght following our generall (to performe and 
fynishe his good service, and knowing there noe place of stay,) 
begun to burne afreshe, amongst which there was one shipp of the 
Marques de S 1 * Cruses burnte, which was thought to be a shipp 
of fyftene hundred tuns, and had in her 500 tuns of iron : we did 
burne in the whole aboute 30 sayle all of great burthen, soe that I 
judge we spoyled him 7000 tons of shippinge: we burned and 
brought away with us 500 tuns of breade, we also burned 400 tuns 
of wheate, we also spoyled him 2000 tuns of wyne, besydes great 
quantitye of oyle. And all our shipps well furnished with wyne, 
bread, oyle, and other necessaryes. 

This great provicion of shippinge and victualls (as the Spanyardes 
saide,) were prepared against Englande. But the Allmightye God, 
knowinge and seeinge his wycked intent to ponishe, molest, and 


treble his lytle flock, the children of Israel, hath raysed up a faith- 
full Moyses for the defence of his chosen, and will not suffer his 
people utterly to fall into the hands of there enimyes. Our good 
God did soe mercyfully and favorably assyste our happye generall 
and leader, in this shorte tyme of service, as was most marvelous : 
for the 21. day in the morninge, by 2 of the clock, we came out of 
the rode, and, when we were a lytle out, we fell becalmeed, and 
ten gallyes followed us, and fought with us all that forenone; but 
whether for lack of powder and shott, or by reason of the heat of 
the day, I know not, or some of them shott thorowe, which was most 
lykelest as we judged, they lay a looife of for the space of three 
howers ; never after durst come within our shott. Which our generall 
seeing, that afternone sent to the captayne of thoise galleyes, to knowe 
yf he had any Ynglyshe men in the gallyes as slaves there, as also to 
will him to delyver unto him 5 Ynglyshe men whom they had 
taken with a carvell att our comynge into Gales, by reason she was 
soe farr behynde us, the which carvell we had taken the day before : 
and he wolde delyver soe many Spanyardes or Portugalls for them. 
Att which tyme he sent his bote to our generall, presentinge him 
with suckett,* and such other novelltyes as they had, certyfyinge 
him that they had none, but onely thiose whome they had taken 
with the carvell, who were lyvinge, and in the towne att Gales : 
to satysfye which, yf yt pleased him to stay untyll the next day, 
they wolde make his request knowne unto the governors of the 
towne, and wold retorne to him againe with answere. But, as by 
our generall's judgment he perceaved there dissymulacion and there 
intent to defarr tyme, for to accomplyshe some other there devellish 
practyse, (and fyndinge the wynde for his purpose and large,) that 
night bore out to the sea ; not makeinge any accompt of there true 
meaninge or dealinges towardes him in retorne ; after which tyme of 
departure, we tooke att sea a flyebote of Dunkyrke, which was sent 
to Englande, as hereafter shall appere. 

Within fewe dayes after, our Ajax, his myride beinge moved to 

* Suclcet, a kind of sweetmeat. 


spende some further tyme in his prynces service with his courragious 
company to aggravatt the honor of his fame, on the 4. day of May, 
by tymes in the morning, was landed by his appointment 1000 men, 
(18 antient,) who with bolde courrage marched thorowe there corne 
and vyneyeardes, for the space of fyve myles, towardes the towne of 
Lawgust. And where we see afarr of about 400 horsmen bravely 
horssed, but very yll manned ; for they never durst come within 
muskett shott of us, having noe great shott on shore. But when 
we came within muskett shott of the towne, we found yt stronger 
then was certyfyed us, eyther by reporte, or expectacion : for yt 
hath on the lande syde, where we ment to make our entraunce, 
strong walles and fortes of late buylte. And we might also per- 
ceave in the towne att least 3000 men, who, with their great 
ordenaunce and other their small shott, shott att us and over us; 
att which tyme certayne of our men were hurte. To revenge 
which our admyrall with a shott from his shipp made to the horse- 
men, slewe one of there horsses under them, and with dyvers of our 
shott from our shipps and pynnisses hurte and slewe dyvers of there 
men. After which we marched back againe, stayinge att least two 
howers, expectinge there comyng for combatt, but none came; 
whereupon that afternone we, noe further proceedinge againste 
them, retyred to our shipps againe. And the next day, being the 
5. of May, our generall sayled towardes the south capes, Cape Saker 
and Cape St. Vincent, where we landed about 800 men, all muskett, 
small shott, and pykemen: meaninge to satysfye his valyant mynde 
in doeinge some worthye exploytes upon our enimyes lande. When 
we had landed our men, and in order, marching by his direccion from 
our landing towardes a forte called Avelera, upon which was a 
flagg, and from which forte, when they see us so boldly to approch 
them, they fledd unto there great forte or castle Cape Saker, which 
forte, called Avelera, with certayne brass peces we tooke: which 
with certayne of our men was kept. All the rest of our men 
marched towardes the mayne forte or castle, the walles whereof 
were esteemed 30 foote hye, and ten foote brode. And on the est, 



south, and west yt is all a mayne rock, without passage; att least 
30 fawthem highe, and 15 brasse peeces there within planted. And 
as we marched a long by them, they shott att us, but did us noe 
hurte. And then and there by the comaundement of our generall 
30 muskett shott went and skyrmished with them in the castle, 
and, when they had contynewed sometyme in skyrmishing with 
them and spente moste of there powder and shott, they all retorned 
to our mayne battle againe: having noe man slayne, but some a 
lytle hurte. Upon which our generall somraoned the captayne of 
the said castle to parly, comaunding him to yelde yt upp, which he 
then utterly denyed. Whereupon our generall sent for woode from 
our shipps to sett on fyer th'uttermost gate. And he him selfe to see 
the same acte performed, with great industry, carryed of the said 
woode and other provicion in person, and did helpe to sett yt on 
fyer; whylest the vauntgarde of our mayne battle skyrmished with 
them in there faces on the walles. Duringe which tyme of our 
feight with them we had two of our men slayne outright, and 
dyvers sore hurte. In which tyme the captayne of the castle being 
sore wounded, and they all within to the number of 20040 (240 ?) 
wounderfully daunted with our bolde enterpryces, put out there 
flagg of trusse, and yelded : when we entred, and fynding within the 
said castle the foresaide number of 20040 (240 ?) persons, our gene- 
rall most favorably lycenbed them to departe. 

The same day, they of the Cape St. Vincent, (being a Fryery,) 
and in effect as stronge as the foresaid castle with another strong 
forte nere unto yt, (after somons by our generall geven,) sent there 
keyes unto our generall ; them selves flying away and leavyng 
behynde them dyvers great brasse peces. And the next day after, 
being the 6. of May, we departed to our shipps, who ridd in the 
harbor, under the castle ; leaving the said castle and the other 
fortes all on fyer. And in which harber we lay without resystaunce 
of the enimye untyll the tenth day in the mornin-ge, from whence 
we put out and hoisted sayles towardes Castcales, beinge aboute 40 
leages distaunt from our former harber ; and where we rode att 


anker most of that day in contempt of the said towne of Castcales, 
the castle, and eight of the Kinges gallies. And which towne and 
castle shott att us, but (thanckes be to God,) we were by his 
providence allwayes shelded from perell ; we lay att anker that day 
within seight of Lyshborne, which ys the chefest cittye in all 
Portugall, and where we tooke one carvell, which our generall sent 
that afternone to a great forte or castle called S c Julyans, where the 
Marques de Santa Cruses was as leavetenaunt for the Kynge; willing 
him to send all such Ynglyshmen as were captyves in the gallyes 
there, and he wolde delyver soe many Spanyardes or Portugalls for 
them ; as also to knowe, yf the Kyng his master did deter myne to 
make warres this yere against Englande : which yf he did, that then 
he was there to waste him for England. But the Marques sent him 
this worde againe, that (as he was a gentleman,) there was none. 
And further sent this worde unto our generall, that the Kyng was 
not provided this yere ; when our generall sent to knowe yf he 
wolde have three yers warninge. Yett, notwithstandinge, to knowe 
ho we God worketh with his elect and howe the enimyes of his truth 
are not ashamed stoutly to stande in there arrogancye and errors, 
styll mayntayninge there causes withe falshoode and lyes ; but they 
have there rewarde with there master and author thereof : for we 
founde letters upon a Portugall whome we had then taken, and 
which he had wrytten to his frendes, that the kynge had mad e 
proclamacion in the country, that he wolde to Englande this yere, 
and wolde not leave one a lyve of mankynde above the age of 7 

But, as the hen doth gather together her chickens, noryshinge 
and defendinge them from the fury of sarpentes, even soe our good 
God with the wynges of his marcye (his mightye name therefore be 
praysed !) hathe and doth noryshe and defend us, as instrumentes of 
his truth. That night towardes evenninge we weaed anker, and 
from Castcales put out to sea, retorninge to our former harber Cape 
Saker ; where we moored our shipps, furnishinge them with freshe 
water and ballest, as also refreshinge our men on shore for the space 


of 6 dayes. In wliicli tyme of our staye there came a neeger to our 
shipps, who was hastely pursued by Spanyardes on horseback, 
makeing greate scearch for him on shore. And which neeger 
beinge brought on boorde our generall, he certyfied him that there 
was come to Lawgust [Lagos] ten of the kynges gaily es, unto 
which place our generall the next day say led, beinge distant about 
4 leages ; and when we were come soe nere them, soe as our great 
ordenaunce wolde reach them, we gave them our brode sydes, when 
they for rescue nedd under the rockes : where, for lack of water and 
further daunger, we coulde not come nere them. They also shott 
att our shippes, but did us noe harme. And as we sayled a longe 
the shore, our . pynnisses chasseed within there bayes there small 
vessells and fysherbotes, soe that they run them selves on shore, and 
sunck them selves. That night our admirall with the rest of our 
fleete put roomer * to sea, and the next day in the morning, beinge 
the 19. of May, put into the same place againe ; where we landed 
about 400 men, nere unto Algaferra, who sett on fyer a fysher 
vyllage, and soe retorned to our shipps againe. 

We have burnt, sunck, and spoyled a great number of small 
vessells, carvells, and fysherbotes, some loden with orees [oars ?] for 
the kynges gallyes, some with hoopes, pypebordes, fyshernettes and 
such lyke trashe. 

Nowe, after all this tyme of service againste the Kynge of Spayne, 
even att his doore and under his nose, our generall determyning to 
travell (to accomplyshe his intent,) to the Ilandes of Tercera, ap- 
pointed Captayne Parker, captayne of the flyebote of Dunkyrke, 
Captaine Kyman, captayne of the French man, which we brought 
from Cales, and other 3 small barkes for England; in whome was 
sent all our syck, lame, and deszeased men, who on Monday the 22 
of May parted from us. And that night, about midnight, there 
arose a great tempest, which contynewed untyll Thursday the 25 ; 
in which tempest we were all sore tossed, our admirall beinge in 

* An old nautical term, " To go or put roomer," to tack about before the wind. Per- 
haps derived from the French remuer. 


great daunger. The next day, beinge Fryday, the 26. of May, 
William Burrousse, then supposed captayne of the Golden Lyon, 
seinge us all sore distressed, and understandinge that our generall 
wolde goe for the ilandes, he, without leave takeing of our gene- 
rall, put roomer for Englande. And soe we, havvinge lost in the 
forsaid tempest all our marchaunt shipps, were left onely in number 
9 sayles, who alltog[eth]er willingly sayled towardes the said ilandes 
of Tercera; who, after 16 dayes spent att the sea, on the 8. day of 
June, beinge Thursday in the forenone, we discryed the Islande 
Saynte Michells, under whiche ilande towardes night we escryed a 
great sayle; which our generall judged to be a man of warr. And, 
for that two of our pynnisses were farr a starne our flette, he 
comaunded the Raynebowe to lye a lee and come a stayes; which 
done, in the morninge by day we discryed a great sayle, who by our 
judgment made towardes us, and we, havinge a prettye gale of 
wynde, with all spede made towardes her; but by that tyme we 
had sayled towardes her aboute one leage, we might perceave her to 
be a mighty shipp, which was then called a carract, having out her 
Portugall flagg, a reade crosse: which she tooke in, and put out 
three or four tymes to the end we shoulde discrye our selves. But 
we, knoweinge what she was, wolde put out noe flag untyll we were 
within shott of her, when we hanged out flages, streamers, and 
pendentes, that she might be out of dout to knowe who we were : 
which don, we hay led her with cannon shott, and havinge shott 
her thorowe dyvers tymes, she shott att us, sometymes att one, 
sometymes att an other. Then we begun to applye her whotelye, our 
flyebote and one of our pynnisses lyinge thwarte her hawsse, att 
whom she shott, and threwe fyer workes, but did them noe hurte : 
for that her ordenaunce lay soe hye over them. Then she, seeinge 
us redye to lay her on boorde, all of our shippes applyinge her soe 
hotely and resolutly , determyned to make shorte with her : sex of 
her men beinge slayne, and dyvers sore hurte, they yelded unto us ; 
whome when we boorded, we founde to be the Kynge of Spaynes 
owne shipp come from the Est Indyes, called by his owne name 


Phillipp, and the greatest shipp in all Portugall, rychly loden, to 
our happye joy and great gladnes. There were also in her 400 
neegers, whome they had taken to make slaves in Spayne and 
Portugall, whome our generall with the captaine and his company, 
to the number of 20040, (240?) put into our flyebote to goe whether 
they lyst. And further delt most favorably with them, giving them 
most lyberally : and soe about ten of the clock they departed from 
us, and as we thought to the Hand S te Michells, and we in lyke 
sorte made our course for Englande: which fortunate lande 011 
Sonday, the 25. of June, before day, we discried, fallinge with the 
ilande Gyllye, and nere the rockes. And on Monday the 26. we 
arryved att Plymouth, where we all, to our great com fortes, gave 
thanckes to God for our prosperous voiage, safe retorne, and his 
great benefyttes. 

Whence theise benyfyttes procede is rather to be referred unto 
the devyne providence of the Allmightye, who, with the eternitye 
of his power, ruleeth the earth, then the hidden misterye of his wyll 
to be scearched into. The auntient Romauns renowmed for there 
prowesse Allmightye God hath heretofore (beinge hathen men) 
plenty fully powered [on] them the benyfyttes of his grace, as amongst 
them Scipio, amongst the Carthaginians the valiant Hanniball, 
amongst Gretians Achilles, and amongst the Trojans Hector ; who, 
being both barberous and rude men, were taught by the lawes of 
nature to preferr the honor of there country before the respect of 
there lyves. And, as the wyse philosopher Solon was wounte to 
say, noe man is borne for him selfe but for his countryes cause ; soe 
hath this faythfull generall consyderately performed the office of a 
Christian captaine in scourginge the enimyes of the truth, in 
enrychinge his country, in gevinge generall and evident example of 
vertue to all such as valiant courrage shall here after army mate or 
styre up to doe the lyke. There are many bostinge salivators, 
who, carpinge att shadowes att home, doe seeke to wyn credytt 
from laborious and venterous captaynes, and, lyke drones, repayer 
to the hyve to suck the hony from the paynefull bees ; but this 


valiant Captayne, leavinge carped service to them that seeke the 
gaynes thereof, hath (to the glory e of God, for that all we doe must be 
referred to that sacred purpose,) abayted the courrage of the prowde 
enimye, discovered many secrett practyzes intended to his sacred 
and swete prynces, who lyke a faithfull mother norisheth her 
children, defendes them from the bloodye myndes of enimyes, and, 
lyke a carefull pastoresse, feedeth her shepe and defendes them from 
the teeth of tearing wolves, who sytt barking att the mone, on the 
mountes of Albion, whose tounges the two-edged sworde of our 
Jehova I wyshe to cutt of, and lett his brasen rodd bruse the 
bones of thoise secrett wolves, that coutch them safely in the woodes 
of Saba, and lurcke in the wynter amongst the braunches of our 
ceeders, whiche Jehova send prosperytye to his lytle England and 
adde more ages to Elizabeth. 

FINIS quod Ho. LENG. 





I. Drake's Agreement with the Merchant Adventurers ,;,. , . . 26 

II. A list of the Merchant Adventurers . . , . . ,, .27 

III. Instructions from the Council despatched after Drake's departure . . 28 

IV. Walsingham to Stafford. Countermand of the original Instructions . 29 

V. Sir F. Drake to Mr. John Fox. Account of the Attack upon Cadiz . 30 

VI. R. T. to Dr. Gifford. Another relation of the spoiling of Cadiz . . 34 

VII. Advices of Sir F. Drake's proceedings before Cadiz (sent out of France) . 35 

VIII. John Wrothe to Lord Burghley. Foreign opinion upon Drake's movements 38 

IX. Stafford to Walsingham. Announcement of Drake's success . . 38 

X. Spanish Correspondence (taken in the voyage) relative to the English 

Expedition . . . < J i . . 1'1'i .39 

XI. Drake to Master W. Touching his progress .^-i - -tj '! 'Mr . 42 
XII. Lo. Treasurer and Lo. Comptroller to Andreas de Loo. Explanation of 

the conduct of the Government in reference to Drake's Voyage . . 43 

XIII. Lord Burghley to Andreas de Loo. Disclaiming Drake's authority for his 

depredations . . . . . . . .44 

XIV. Request of the Merchant Adventurers for an equitable share in the Spoil . 45 
XV. News of Drake after the Attack before Cadiz . . . .46 

XVI. Letters to M. Giacopo Mannucci. State of alarm on the Continent, and 

probable results consequent upon Drake's continuing his aggressions . 47 
XVII. Report of Gilbert Tison. Grief of the Spaniards at the loss of the Carrack. 

Escape of the West-Indies' fleet . . . . . .48 

XVIII. Commissioners (for ordering the contents of the Carrack) to the Council . 49 

XIX. Valuation of the Goods contained in the San Phillippe . . .50 

XX. Contents of a Casket found in the San Phillippe . . . .52 

XXI. The Partition of the Spoil . ..... 53 




[Lansdowne MS. 56, fol. 175.] 

Whereas it hath pleased her most Excellent Ma tie to grant unto me, Sir 
Frauncis Drake, knyght, hir commission, bearinge date the fiftenth day of 
March in the nyne and twenty yere of hir Ma t1es raigne, for a service to 
be don by me the said Sir Frauncis with fowre of her Ma ties shippes and two. 
pynacies ; and whereas Thomas Cordell, John Wattes, Pawle Banninge, 
Symon Boreman, Hewghe Ley, Robert Flycke and their partners, mer- 
chaunts of London, have also prepared at their own proper costes and 
charges tenne merchaunte ships and pinnaces, also for hir Ma ties service ; 
wherefore I, the said Sir Frauncis Drake, doe by virtue of my saide 
commission covenant, promisse, and graunte to and with the said Thomas 
Cordell, John Wattes, Pawle Bannynge, Symond Boreman, Hewghe 
Ley, Roberte Flycke, and their partners, for the better performance 
of the pretended service, to consorte with the saide merchauntes 
shippes, which I do also receive under my goverment; and that whatsoever 
commoditie in goodes, money, treasure, marchaundizes, or other benefitt 
whatsoever shall happen to be taken by all or any of the foresaide shippes 
or their company, either by sea or lande, that the same shalbe equally 
devided accordinge to their proporcions (that is to say), man for man, and 
tonne for tonne, to be devided at the sea presently after the possession 
therof ; or so sone as winde and weather will permit ; provided always, that 
whatsoever pillage shalbe had either by sea or land, shalbe devided 
indifferently, viz. the one half to the company in hir Ma ties shippes, and 
the other half to the company of the merchauntes shippes ; and for the 
better satisfyinge of both parties, there shalbe meet men putt abord of 
either fleet to have speciall care thereof ; and for the performance herof, 
I, the said Sir Frauncis Drake, have hereunto sett my hande and scale. 
Yeven the eightene day of March, 1586, and in the nyne and twentie yere 


of the raigne of our soveraigne ladie Elizabeth, by the grace of God 
Quene of England, Fraunce, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. 
Vera copia et examinata per me 

RICH. MAY, Not. Pub. 
(In dorso) 18 Martij, 1587. 

The compact betwixt Sir Franc. Drak and the companye of certen 
merchantes as cowncill. 


[8. P. O. Domestic Corresp.] 
The Names of the Suertyes to be bounde to her Ma tie for L m l It. 

Thes are parteners, S r Francis Drake, knyghte. 

and interested in rni ~, , ,, 

the prise. Thomas Cordell, mercer. 

Rycharde Barratte, mercer. 
Paule Bannynge, grocer. 
Heughe Lee, grocer. 
William Garraway, draper. 
Roberte Sadler, habardasher. 
Symon Boreman, haberdasher. 
Jhon Stockes, fyshemonger. 
Jhon Wattes, clothwoorker. 
Edward Holmden, grocer. 
Androwe Bannynge, grocer. 
Francis Terrell, grocer. 
Robarte Flycke, draper. 
George Barnes, habardasher. 
Rogar Howe, habardasher. 
Johne Jackson, clotheworker. 
Jeames Lancastar. 
Robarde Barrette. 
Anthony Dassell, skynner. 

(Indorsed) 31 Oct. 1587. 

The names of the suerties to be bownde for the 50,000" to her Ma tie . 



[S. P. O. Domestic Corresp.] 

After our harty comendations, Whereas uppon sundry advertisementes 
and intelligences, receaved at divers tymes this last winter, very provably 
reported as well out of Spayn as from other cuntryes, of great numbers of 
shippes and other provisions for the sea, prepared by the said K., with 
intent (as it was given out) to employ the same in some attempt, ether 
against this realme or the realme of Ireland : Hir Ma tie did thinke it very 
convenient, both for hir honnour and for necessary defence, to have some 
strength of shipping at sea, to prevent or withstand such entreprises as 
might be attempted against hir H. said realmes or dominions, to sett forth 
to the seas under your charge certayn of hir own shippes, with further 
authority given you to take and calle into your company as well certayn 
shippes sett out by some of the marchantes of the city of London, as also 
such other shippes of this realme as you should finde abroad at sea, and 
to employ them as you should see cause for hir Ma ties service. 

Since your departure, hirMa tle being otherwise advertised, that nether the 
said preparations were so great as was reported, and further, that they 
are of late dissolved ; divers shippes as well of the East cuntryes as also of 
Holland and Zeland, who had been before stayd uppon pretence to furnish 
the said preparations, being discharged and licenced to return home ; a and 
perceaving also, by some other matter that hath proceaded from the said 
K. of Spayn and his ministers, that he is desirous that the unkindenes and 
jarres happened of late yeares between hir Ma tie and him might be in 
some honorable sort compounded ; hir Ma tie , being for hir part loth for 
those considerations to exasperate matters further then they are, or to give 
cause to the world to conceave, by anie thing that may procead from hir 
or anie of hir ministers or subiectes, that the present alteration between 
the said K. and hir is mainteyned or nourished by hir, otherwise then 
forced thereunto for hir own defence, hath comanded us to signify unto 
you in hir name, that hir expresse will and pleasure is, you shall forbeare 
to enter forcibly into anie of the said K's portes or havens, or to offer 

The paragraph commencing here with the words " and perceaving" and terminating 
with " hir own defence " has been specially marked in the original. 


violence to anie of his townes or shipping within harborough, or to doe 
anie act of hostillity uppon the land. And yet, not withstanding this 
direction, hir pleasure is that both you and such of hir subjectes as serve 
there under you should doe your best indevour [as well by force as other- 
wise,]* to gett into your possession (avoyding as myche as may lye in you 
the effusyon of Christian blood,) such shipping of the said King's or his. 
subjectes, as you shall finde at seas : ether going from thence to the East 
or West Indies, or returning from the said Indyes into Spayn, and such as 
shall falle into your handes to bring them into this realme without break- 
ing bulke, untill her H. pleasure shall be further made knowen unto you 
in that behalfe. 

(In dorso,} 1587, 9 Apr. 

M. to S r FRA. DRAKE. 


[S. P. O. For. Corresp. France.] 
Walsingham to Sir Ed. Stafford, 21 April, 1587. 

Sir Frances Drake, as I doubt not but you have heard, is gon fourth to 
the seas, with fewer of her Ma tes shippes and two pinnaces, and betwene 
twenty and thirtye merchauntes shippes. His Commission is to impeach 
the joyning together of the K. of Spaynes fleete out of their severall portes, 
to keepe vittalls from them, to followe them, in case they should be come 
forward towardes England or Ireland, and to cutt off as many of them as 
he could, and impeach their landing ; as also to set uppon such as should 
ether come out of the West or East Indias into Spayne, or go out of 
Spayne thether ; but now, uppon knowledge reseavid that the K. doth 
dissolve his preparacions, havinge alreadye dischardged th'Easterlings, 
there is new order sent unto Sir Frauncis Drake to take a milder course, 
for that he was before particularlye directed to distresse the shippes 
within the havens themselves. 

a The words here included in brackets are struck out. 



[Harl. MS. 167, fol. 104, and printed at the end of Thomas Greepe's Exploites of Sir 
Fr. Drake, a poem, 4. Bl. L. London, 1587.] 

To my very lov[inge friend Mr. Jno. Fo]xe, preacher, hast and post hast. 

Mr. Foxe, whereas we have had of late [suche happy successe] against 
y e Spanierds, I doe assure my selfe that you have faithfully remembred us 
in your good prayers, and therefore I have not forgotten briefly to make 
you partaker of y e somme thearof. 

The 19th of April we aryved with [in] Gales roade, where we found 
much shipping; but, among y e rest, 32 shippes of exceeding great bur- 
then, laden, and to be laden, with provision and prepared to furnishe y e 
Kinges navye, intended with all speed against England ; the which, when 
we had boarded and thearout furnished our shippes with such provision 
as we thought sufficient, we burned ; and, although for y e space of 2 dayes 
and nights that we continewed thear we were still endangered, both with 
thundering shott from the to\vne, and assaulted with the roaring canons 
of 12 galleys, we yet sonck 2 of them and one great argousey, and still 
avoided them with very smale hurt ; so that at our departure we brought 
away 4 shippes of provision, to the great terror of our enemyes and 
honor to ourselves, as it might appear by a most courteous letter, written 
and sent to me w th a flagge of truice by D. Pedro, generall of y e galleys. 
But whereas it is most certayn that the K. doth not only make speedy 
preparation in Spaine, but likewise expecteth a very great fleet from the 
Straights and divers other places to joine with his forces to envade Eng- 
lande, we purpose to sett aparte all feare of danger, and by God's further- 
ance to proceed by all good meanes that we can devise to prevent their 
coming ; wherefore I shall desier you to continew a faithfull remembrancer 
of us in your prayers, that our present service may take that good effect 
as God may be glorified, his church our Q. and contreye preserved, and 
the enemy of the truth utterly vanquished, that we may have continewall 
peace in Israeli. From aboord her Ma ties good shipp the Elizabeth- 
Bonadventure, in very great hast, this 27 of April, 1587. 


Written by the hande of your obedient sonne in the Lorde, William 
Spenser, and subscribed with S r Fr. owne hand in this sort, 

Your loving frend, and faithfull sonne in Christ Jesus, 


[An addition written with Sir Francis' owne hand.] 

Our enemyes are many, but our Protector comandeth y e whole world: 
let us all pray continewally, and our Lorde Jesus will helpe in good tyme 

Your ever, 


[ Upon the back of this document) which is a copy only, appears another in 
the same handwriting with the foregoing, but slightly imperfect at the 
commencement, the first line or ttvo being almost illegible. It is evidently a 
narrative of the attack in the harbour of Cadiz by one of the actors in the 
a/air, and tallies most minutely in its detail with the account of Robert Leng.~] 

The 19. of April one hour afore sonne sett he entred the harb[our] 

whear he was at his 
the towne with vj galleys, but the same retorned sone 

In the road thear were about 60 shippes besides other small vessells 
[that] rode under their forteresses, whearof about 20 Fre[nch] shippes 
fled to Porte Koyall and some Spanierdes whose flight we could not hinder 
by reason of the schalles [shallows ?]. 

At our entry with our shott we sunck one argozey of about 1,000 
tonne that caryed 30 brasse peeces and was very ritchly laden. Thear 
were before night about 38 shippes undertaken, and we victors of the 
roade, for the galleys retired to their forteresses. Thear came presently 
from S* Mary Porte 2 galleys and other 2 from Porte Royall, but in vayne, 
for their chiefest gaine was expence of pouder and shott. 

Of 20 hulkes Hollanders confiscate to the Kinge whose goodes were 
sould to his use 14 were fyered, the other 6 scaped to Porte Eoyal ; we 
fyered a carrick belonging to the Marquize of Sancta Grace of 1,400 


tonne. We fyred also 5 great Biscayns, whearof 4 weare lading and 
takinge in of victuals to the Kinges use for Lisbone, and the fivth, bey[ng] 
a shipp of 1,000 tonne, was laden for the Indies with iron spikes, nayles, 
iron hoopes, and horseshoes. 

Also 3 flyboates of 300 tonne laden with biscuict, whearof one was halfe 
unladen before in the harborow and thear fyered ; the other two we tooke 
away with us. 

Some 10 barckes more laden with wyne, raysins, figges, oyle, wheat, and 
such lyke we fyered. 

Thear were by supposition 38 barckes fyered, sonck, and brought away, 
which amounted unto 13,000 tonne of shipping. Thear ridd at Porte 
Royall in sight of us by estimation above 40 sayle, beside those that fled 
out of Gales Roade. During our aboade they gave us small rest by reason 
of their shott from the galleys, forteresses, and shoar, whear continewally 
they placed new ordinance at places convenient to offende ; which notwith- 
standinge, we continewally fyered their shippes as the flood came inn, to the 
end to be cleared of them ; the sight of which terrible fyers were to us 
very plesant, and mitigated the burthen of our continewall travayle, whearin 
we were busied for 2 nights and one day in dischardging, fyering, and 
lading of provisions], with reservation for good, laudable, and guardable 
defence of the ennemy. 

It pleased God by the general's great care and paynes day and night to 
finish this happy action in her Ma t1es service in one day and 2 n[ights], 
and came out againe the Fryday in the morning without the loss of any 
one man at the action, or any hurte but only the master gunner of the 
Golden Lyon, whose legge was broken with a great peece from the towne ; 
but the man like to doe well, God be thancked. 

In a small carvell that was taken the night before were 5 of our men 
without the generall's knowledge, because he hasted the enterprize with all 
expedition, which was very needful, because the sonne was not above one 
houre high at our approach. This carvell beyng far asterne came in very 
late, so as the galleys intercepted her with much shott and many musketts, 
but they would never strike, and so was taken, which was all the losse that 
we sustayned. 

Tenne galleys came forth after us, but as to make sport with their 
ordinance ; at length the winde skanted, and we cast about for the shoare, 


and came to ankor within one league of Gales, whear the gallyes suffered 
us to ryde quietly. Thre of those galleys after some sporte departed the 
same day to S fc Lucar to fetch other thre galleys and one galliace that 
were thear, as we understood, by advertisement of some of our prisoners. 
There were also 3 flybotes at Malega laden with bread and bound for 
Gales, and so for Lisbone, we understand of great provision and forces, 
provided within the straights ; but we doubt not but God, as he has given 
us this happy victory to the daunting of the enemy, will also blesse this 
armye, and thearwith dayly cutt theyr forces shorter, fo his great annoy 
and to the honor of our Prince and contry, which God for ever continew, 

We have now tryed by experience the galleys' fight, and I assure you 
that her Ma tie8 4 shippes will make no accompt of 20 of them, in cace they 
might be alone and not driven to guard others. 

Thear were never galleys that had more fitte place for their advantage 
in fight, for, upon the shot that they receaved, they had present succour 
from the towne, which the[y] used sundry tymes ; we riding in a narrow 
gutt, the place yealding no better, in that we were driven to mainteyn the 
fight untill we had fyered their shippes, which could not be conveniently 
done but upon the flood, for they might drive cleane [off.] 

We rest victualed with bread and drinck for 6 monthes in our shippes, 
and have besides twoe flyeboates full laden with bread sufficient for a good 
army for thre monthes. 

We all remayn in great love with our generall and in unitye throughout 
the whole fleet. 

It may seem strange or rather miraculous that so great an exploict 
shold be performed with so small losse ; the place to endomadge us beyng 
so convenient, and their force so great, as appeared, from whom were shot 
at us at the least 200 culverine and canon shott; but in this as in all 
others our actions heartofore, though dangerously attempted yet happely 
performed, our good God hath and dayly doth make his infinite power 
manifest to all papistes apparantly, and his name be by us his servants 
continewally honored. 




[Lansd. MS. 96, Art. 24.] 

Good cosen Gifford, lo here a full amendes that I wrote nott newes to 
yowe but to D r Stillinges in my other ; after whiche 3 houres, I send these 
partyculers ; for I wrote onely to him in generall, that Draecke had played 
his pagent, and retorned home : here the maner howe. 

The 29. of Aprill last he discov[er]ed him selfe before Calz in Spayne, 
where, the wynde and wether failinge him, as God would, he could nott in twoe 
dayes after enter the ry ver, but upon Saterday he did : in this meane tyme 
they prepared ther selfes, planted artilerye upon ther bridge, and furnyshed 
ther gallies. The marchants strangers, beinge very many in numbre, 
abandoned all ther shipps, so as 22 of them wer sonke and takinge with- 
oute any resistance, whereof he caryed onely e away withe him vj. whiche 
he spoyled upon the seas, and after sonke them also ; his spoyle he gott is 
small, or nothinge woorthe to England, greate losse to the awnners, whiche 
were all Spaynerdes and Italy ans, of Venis, Luca, Florenteze, Genua, save 
one shipp of a Frenchman's woorthe some viij or 10,000 A, the whole losse 
in generall (for Don Diego, who wrote the newes, wrote also the particu- 
lers), dothe not surmount to above 170,000 A; whereof the Kinges parte 
is leste of all, not vij m , A in vitailles, for gallies he lost none, but Don 
Marquis del S te Cruce lost his owne princely barke, estemed at the valewe 
of 18,000 A, whiche warmeth him, who, for feare of lossinge his honor 
before, well [was?] always hinginge backe frome inedlinge or matchinge 
withe Englishe pirates. The rest be most of it the said 4 states of Italics, 
who vowethe and swearethe the robberye and arrest of all Englishe shipps 
they can come by in Italy or els wher: this, cominge upon the necke of 
the infamye of murderinge the Scottishe Quene, will hasten hir ruyne no 
doute. Sure all reporte they fought most valyantly, withe what losse 
onlye them selfes knowe ; but the fight was reasonable longe, and God gave 
to the gaUies duringe a marvelouse calme, to ther great advantage and the 
ennymies spoyll, yet was it nott noted that any of Draeckes shipps were sonke 
presentlye, thouge most of them banged vylye, and no doute many of ther 
men slayne and hurte. But when Draecke see ther pretence prevented and 
provyded for, and the towne forewarned of ther comynge, he perceyved 
they had had advertissement, and so retyred. Ther pretence to have taken 


that have ( sic) ther, and so to have in those strayttes joyned with Mores, 
Infydells, and other, to have all traffycke frpme Spaine, ether from the 
Indyans, or from Mare Mediterranean, a dyvelshe device, yf it had taken 
successe. Here Waid and the Embassadour swearethe, that some of the 
pryvie counsell at home be trayters, and bewrayed the mater, and so 
have overthrowen the realme. God be praysed, he spedd no better; ether 
this or nothing will maike seeke revenge. These newes beinge so trewe, 
so particular, and so freshe, I doute nott but I have maid yowe amendes, 
good cosen; yea, I suppose as yett yowre pinces (sic) ther have not these 
particulers, and therefore use them as yowrs, but rede them not in the 
Hall, tyll M r D. Styllinges have redde his, whiche be onely but 3 houres 
older. Adieu, once again, good cosen ; comend me most effectually to yowre 
mother and syster, I trust all thre my frendes, this Corpus Christi even. 

Your cosen, 

R. T. a 
(Addressed,) A. Mons r , 

Mons r Docter Giffort, 

Au semynarie des Anglois, 


[S. P. O. For. Corresp. France.] 

Advis de ce qui est passe a Calez, en la conte d'Andalowste: farmee d 1 Angle- 
terre, commandee par Francois Dracq, y estant arrive le xxix e jour 
du moys d'Apvril,*1587. 

Le Mecredy 29 Apvril, sur les cinq heures du soir, 1'armee d'Angleterre 
feust descouverte, venant droict a Caliz, ou Don Pedro de Acugna estoit 
avec sept galleres: Tun desquelles il envoya pour recognoistre quelz 
vaisseaulx ce pouvoient estre, et ladite gallere sestant approchee a la 
portee du canon rut tire par les Anglois, ce qui la feit retourner dans le 
port, a quoy Ton cogneust que c'estoit ennemis. L'alarme se donna 
incontinent par toute la ville, qui se mit ez arrnes, faisant retirer dans la 

8 Query Robert Throckmorton ? The families of Gifford and Throckmorton were 
allied by marriage. 


forteresse les femmes et toutes personnes in[capables] a la deffendre, et 
pour la confusion a quoy ils se trouverent, vingt sept femmes et enfans se 
trouverent estouffez en la presse, et a 1'entree de ladite forteresse. 

Le gouverneur et les principaulx de la ville meirent incontinent le meilleur 
nombre de les gens aux advenues les plus dangereuses, et ou 1'ennemy pour- 
roit plustost desembarquer : et pendant que chacun se mettoit ez armes dans 
ladite ville, fust despesche" au Due de Medina Sidonia a St. Lucar, et a 
toutes les villes et lieux circonvoisins, pour leur demander secours. Ce 
pendant ung nombre de fl gens a cheval et de pied feirent ung - corps de 
garde au pont, le lieu le plus commode pour desembarquer : autre nombre 
fut envoye pour empescher que 1'ennemy ne rompit ung pont par lequel 
debvoit entrer le secours. Les ennemys, estans entrez dans le port y 
commencerent a mettre a fondz tous les navires qui se trouverrent devant 
eulx ; entre autres ung grand navire Genevoye charge de marchandise, 
fort riche, cinq autres d'Espaigne chargez et appareillez pour aller aux 
Indes, et ung grand gallion Biscain du port de 700 tonneaulx ; et tous 
lesditz vaisseaulx se perderent ; car 1'ennemy mettoit le feu a tous, apres en 
avoit tire ce que bon luy sembloit. 

A 1'encontre de ladite arme"e fust prise dans le port par une gallere une 
barque, ou estoient quatre ou cinq Anglois, desquelz feust sceu que ladite 
armee estoit venue en tierze jours d'Angleterre a Caliz, avec deliberacion 
de saccager la ville. Don Pedro da Acugna ce pendant faisoit tout le 
debvoir avec ses galleres d'endomager 1'ennemy, 1'artillerye du quel, estant 
de plus grande ported que celle des galleres, les contraignit de se retirer. 

Toute la nuict se passa en grande trouble et confusion dans la ville, et 
1'ennemy ayant trouve lesdites galleres dans le port, et voyant la resist- 
ance que Ton se preparoit de luy fere, ne luy fit aucun effort de mettre 
gens a terre ; et prins pour meilleure party saccager et brusler les vais- 
seaulx, qui peut aborder, en quoy Dieu fit une grande grace a ce peuple, 
car la peur et la confusion 1'avoit laisse merveillesement troubled 

Les villes et lieux circonvoisins toute la nuict furent marches leur 
secours, et une partie y entra sur la dianne, et le reste sy acheminant et y 
entrant d'heure en heure. 

Lejeudy, le jour estant venu, les galleres se meirent autre fois en debvoir 
d'attacquer 1'ennemy, auquel demeura tant d'avantage pour la quantite et 
force de son artillerye, que les galleres feurent contrainctes de se retirer. 


L'ennemy envoya force barque pour mettre le feu aux vaisseaulx, qu'il 
pouvoit aborder ung grand gallion du Marquis de S te Croix, du port de 
800 tonneaux, charge* de vins, et fut aborde par 1'ennemi cinq autres 
vaisseaulx Biscains, six ou sept Turques, chargees en partie de munitions 
de guerre et victuailles, et tous feurent saccagez; puys apres 1'ennemy 
mit le feu dedans. 

Le dit jeudy, au matin, 1'ennemi feyt contenance de voulloir entre- 
prendre de rompre le pont, par lequel il voyoit entrer le secours ; toutes 
fois voyant deux galleres, et quelques vaisseaulx ordonnez pour le deffen- 
dre, ne fit aucun effort. 

Sur le midy Tarmac se mit en tresbon ordre, et montrerent & leur 
contenance voulloir fere a la voille: mais le vent ne le servit pas, et sur- 
gireit ; autres fois cependant 1'artillerye des galleres et de la forteresse ne 
cessa de tirer pour endommager ; mais la scienne portait trop d'avantage a 
1'autre, de sorte qu'il n'en fut aucunement offence, et fit tousjours retirer 
les galleres. 

Le jeudy, en tout le jour, entrerent dans Caliz trois mil hommes de pied 
de differendz endroictz, et trois cens chevaulx ; la plus grande partie 
estans conduictz par le Due de Medina Sidonia, qui entra sur le midy, et 
la ville fut asseure". La nuict estant leve"e, les gardes feurent assisse"s et 
renforcees, nonobstant que Ton cogneust bien que 1'ennemy se voulloit 
retirer ; et sur le minuit estant leve" ung vent de terre 1'arme'e se feit & la 
voille les galeres, en suiverent. Et, & la mesme heure, le Due de Medina 
Sidonia depescha ung basteau leger pour suivre ladite armee, jusques & ce 
que Ton peut tirer certitude de la routte que Ten prenoit, qui est ce qui 
c'est passe jusques au vendredy matin premier jour de May. 

L'on estime qu'il peut emporter deux mil neuf cens pippes de vins, dix 
mil quintaulx de buiscuitz, dix mil charges de froment, et quelque quan- 
tite d'autres victuailles, et munitions de guerre ; grand nombre d'armes et 
d'artillerye, qu'il a tire" de dix neuf vaisseaulx, qu'il a brusl dans le port. 

Aucuns estiment le dommage, que a faict ladite arme'e, importer de trois 
ou quatre cens mil escuz ; autres disent beaucoup davantage, ce qui ne se 
peut encores estimer en si peu de temps : Ton presume que ladite armee 
prendra la routte des Isles de Carrie, la Madere, ou la Tirsera, et qu'elle y 
fera tout 1'effort et dommage qu'il pourra d'en . . . chercher les flottes qui 
viennent des Indes, sur lesquelz Drac droict avoir son principal desseing. 


Eelladon des Navires de VArmee de Francois Dracq. 

Deux cappitaines grandz vaisseaulx, et fort bien faictz pour la guerre ; 
chacun du port de 500 tonneaulx ou environ. 

Deux amirailles de la mesme forme et port que les deux premiers. 

Ung grand navire de la mesme sorte, du port de 400 tonneaux. 

Deux gallions fort bien faictz pour la guerre, du port de 200 tonneaulx. 

Sept navires de 150 tonneaulx, a peu pres tous bien arme's, et pourveus 
de fort bonne artillerie. 

Treize fregottes, fort belles, du port de 50 tonneaulx ou environs. 

Les grandz navires maynant de service pour chacun deux ou trois bar- 
ques, fort legers, pour desembarquer 30 ou 40 personnes k chacune fois. 

Qui sont en tout vingt sept vaisseaulx, sans les barques sur lesquelles 
deux Anglois pris prissoniers ont diet ny avoir pas davantage de iiij m 
hommes, compris les mariniers. 


[S. P. O. For. Corresp. Venice.] 
'Mr. John Wrothe to Lord BurgUey, dated Venice, May 7, 1587. 

The settinge oute of Sir Francesse Dracke to the sea is marvelouslie 
aproved in these parts, and affirmed to bee the onelie meanes of hinderinge 
the prosperouse successes of the Spaniard's attempts ; the whiche is onelie 
maintained with the richesse and trade of the Indies, the whiche if her 
M. cann finde meanes to intercepte or lett, then no doute the Spaniarde 
will be constrained to come to a verie reasonable compositione. 


[S. P. O. For. Corresp. France.] 
S r Ed. Stafford to Walsingham, May 17, 1587. 

There is a couriar come hether yesternight out of Spayne with newes 
of S r Francis Drake's successe, which althoughe I thinke you have 
allredie, yet woolde I not leave to write ytt, as we heare ytt heere. 


Theie write that he hathe beene in the baie of Gales, where he hathe 
sounke and carried awaie twoe and twentie shippes ; that he had a great 
fight for the winning of the bridge and the towne, and that he verie 
valiantly assailed ytt, and verie hardly missed ytt, and that nowe he is 
retyred backe to the Cape. More, itt is said, that the Marquis of S te 
Crux is at Lisbone, where is a preparation of great forces, and that he 
will be readie to come forthe the eleventhe of the next monethe. 


[Lansdowne MS. 53, fol. 21 &c.] 

Peter Arnaulte in Antwarpe the xxv ih of Marche, 1587, unto afreere in 
Civile (Seville). 

In Englande there be many shippes made readie, as also in Denmarke, 
and all for the warres in Spaine ; of their successe the tyme will give us 
knowledge ; yf you do upon any occasion sell any comodities for time, let 
the prise be raised muche more then for readie money ; for that the 
gallions are subiecte to mysfortune, and yf they shoulde miscarye with 
their golde, (which God forbidde!) we should hardly recover that which is 
owing us, &c. 

The said Peter Arnaulte the xx th of Apr ill, 1587, unto the aforesaid. 

That which doth give us discontent is, that it is certaynely knowne 
that there are gone many shipps of warre out of Englande, and in lyke 
manner from Hollande and Zealande, being (as they say) above 60 sayles ; 
yt is feared they are gone to meete the fleete which is looked for from the 
Indies ; the which, bringing so great ritches as they doe, yt must needes 
encourage theym greatly to sett upon theym; which God forbidde ! And 
it is the more to be feared and suspected, for that there dothe not appeare 
upon all the coast of France or England any shippes of warre; although 
yt be certainly knowne that there are many gone fourth. God guide all, 
and give us peace and bread, of the which there is great want. 


Francisco de Benito de Maiora, in the port St. Mary, the xxix th of Aprill, 
at nym of the clock at night, unto the President and others the Kinges 
Officers of the Contractacion House of the Indies in Civile (Seville). 

The procuringe of the remeadie of this towne and gevinge advise to 
Shearies and S* Lucar, of the confusion wherein the English armye hath 
put us, hath bene cause that this poste departed not three houres sooner, 
as otherwise he might have done. That which passeth is, about fower of 
the clock we hearde a great noise of ordynaunce in the bay, and sawe 
many sayles of shippes entering in. I wolde have gone to have seene 
what it was, but within two houres, which might be about sixe of the 
clock, there came in hither the Galliota, which brought tenne men verie 
soare hurt. The people of this towne are in armes ; there are in the baye 
two or three shippes sett on fire, but what they are we know not ; this is 
all that as yet we can learne, 

The President aforesaid, Antonio de Guevarra, and Ochoa de Vigenca, in 
Civile, the last of Aprill, to the Marques of Aimounte, in Leape. 

Presently there came a post from the Port S* Mary with a letter, the 
coppie whereof goeth herewith, by the whiche your honnour may under- 
stande, ther remayned in the Bay of Cadix an Englishe armye, beinge 40 
great shippes, shootinge to the cittie, and burning shippes &c. : yt hath 
beene thought good to lett your honour understand thereof, to th'ende yf 
yow shall thinke good to seeke prevencion; to the which effecte we dis- 
patched this post. It doth importe verie muche the Kinges service, that 
this advise be given to John Martiniz de Recalde, which is at the Cape 
with certayne shippes of warre : and therefore yt is convenient, it please 
yow, to dispatche a barke presently with a coppie of this letter, and an 
other from your honour, that he may repaire to Lixbone ; and in the 
barke let there goe a man sufficient to delyver him the said dispatches, in 
anie place where he maie fynde him, and what in this shalbe done, it may 
please your honour to advertize us. 

The Marques of Aimonte, in Leape, the 1st of May, 1587, unto John Marti- 
nez de Recalde ; with the coppies of the aforesaid letters, to be delivered 
him at sea, where he may befounde. 

At the present wryting hereof, I receaved a letter from the president 


and other the Kinges Ma ties officers of the Contractacion House of the Indies 
in Civile, the coppie whereof goethe herewith ; as also the coppie of an 
other letter wrytten unto them from the Port S* Mary, and for that it is 
convenient for the Kinges service that your woorship should have advise 
therof, to th'end you might repayre with your shippes to Lixbone. I wryte 
this that there takinge councell of the Cardynall, and the Marques of S ta 
Cruse, yow may repaire to that which maie be most for the Kinges service ; 
and onlie to that effecte I did comaunde to dispatch this barque from 

Gregorio Gomiz, gallego in Lixbone, the ix th of Maie > 1587, unto Domingo 
Martinis, in Anger. 

The newes which I have to advertize your woorship of is, that, as it is 
comonly reported, there are fower fleetes of shippes gone out of Englande ; 
of the which one beinge of xxviij verie great shippes, xvij barkes, and 
one great galliassa, verie well appointed with ordenance, arryved in the 
Bay of Cadiz, where they pretended to have landed and sacked the cittie ; 
but (as God wolde) there weare tenne gallies that defended them, which 
th'enemy seeing, he ancored hard by the shipps he founde in the baye, 
beinge aboute xxix sayles ; and amongst theym Don Farnando his shippe, 
which came from th'Indies, bought by the Marques de S 1 * Cruse ; and of 
th'aforesaid nomber they caryed with them two verie great shippes, with 
above 1,500 pypes of wyne and 4,000 quintalles of biskett, and burned 
the rest. It is said they indamaged the K. above fyve hundrethe thow- 
sand duckettes, in 4,000 pypes of wines, 20,000 kintalles of byskett, 
30,000 hannegas a of wheate and other provicions, which they burned and 
destroyed ; and more, they burned other two shippes, which weare laden 
for Brasill. Their fortune was so good, that the time served them at 
their pleasure to go into the bay and fourth againe; but whither they 
went from hence yt is not knowne. I wishe you to looke well to your- 
selves in that islande, lest they shoulde pretend to goe thither. As yet we 
have none order from Madrild touchinge this matter ; I knowe not whether 
there shall go any shippes of warre for that yslande or noe; God healpe 

a Hannega or rather fanega, a Spanish measure of corn weighing about Icwt. or some- 
what more than an English bushel, 



us ! for we are in great daunger venturinge by sea. Trulie I am in 
great feare of the shippe that did wynter in the Indies, for that I have in 
her a thowsand duckettes adventure ,' God dely ver her from her enemyes ! 
I have not assured any parte thereof, and at this present I do not fynde 
that will assure yt at any prize. 


[Printed in " Newes out of Spain/' Bl. L. 4 1587, in the Grenville Collection.] 

Maister W. a you shal understand that, since the departure of Captaine 
Crosse, we have continued about Cape Saker, where we landed, and the 
better to have the benefite of the water, as also to ride in harborough at 
our pleasure, we assaulted the same castle and three other strong holdes, 
which we tooke, some by force and some by submission. 

"We have taken, at severall times, of shipping, barkes, and carvels 
above an hundreth, laden with hoopes, gallyoares, pipe staves, timber, 
and other provisions of the King of Spaines, for the furnishing of his 
forces intended against England, which we burned, and have consumed all 
the fisher boates and nettes thereaboutes, to their great hinderance. 

Thence we came before the haven of Lishbon, ancouring neere unto 
Cast Gales, where the Marques of S. Cruse was with his gallies, and 
seeing us chase his ships ashore, to take and carrie away his barkes and 
carvels, was content to suffer us there quietlie to tarrie and likewise to 
depart, and never charged us with one cannon shot. 

Thus, for want of time, I leave the discourse of everie particular event 
unto Captaine Parker, who hath beene an eie witnesse and an actor in all 
our services past. From Cape Saker abourd hir Maiesties good shippe 
the Elizabetha-Bonaventure, the 21. of May, 1587. 

Your loving friend, 


a Walsingham? 



[S. P. O. For. Corresp. Flanders.] 

Extract from Letter to Andreas de Loo, signed by the Lo. Treasurer and 
Mr. Comptroller, 14 June, 1587. a 

And whereas yt may be objected, that the employment of Sir Francis 
Drake upon the cost of Spaine hath moved the Duke [of Parma], (upon 
like jealosie conceaved thereby of the soundnes of her Ma tes disposition to 
the said peace,) to proceed as he doth ; yt may be answeared, and that both 
with honor and truth, that her Ma tie hearing sondrie waies, espetially by 
intercepting of divers Spanish letters, which are extant and to bee seen, 
that the King of Spaine had prepared a great navie to sea, with a full 
determination to have assayled this realme and the realme of Ireland, 
could do no lesse but to use all meanes to impeach the same by keping the 
said preparacion, being made in sondrie ports of Spaine, from joyning 
together; for which purpose only the said Drake was sett forth. And 
yet, after her Ma tie was enformed that the said preparations were in some 
part staied, and did also find a disposition in the duke, upon your returne, 
that he was verie well bent to proceed to some good conclusion of peace, 
she caused an expresse messinger to be sent by sea unto the said Drake 
with letters, by the which he was expresly comaunded not to enter into 
anie of the King's ports, or to attempt anie act of hostilitie by land; but 
only to explore the truth of the preparations, and to impeach the amassing 
of the same from port to port. And for that the partie sent with the 
said letter could never, by reason of contrary wynd, recover Sir Francis 
Drake, but was constreyned to returne back without meeting with the 
said Drake, whereby it was not delivered, her Ma tie since his returne hath 
caused him to be verie carefully examined upon the matter, with intent 
to have severely punished him: in case it had not been found (as it was) 
that he had done his uttermost endevor for the finding of the said Drake, 
and that he was impeached by contrary wynds. And for the better mani- 

a This is a draught or copy with corrections and interlineations added in Burghley's 


festing of her Ma les disposition therein, we can assure you that her 
highnes, understanding of some attempts of the said Drakes by land con- 
trary to her speciall direction, is greatly offended with him for the same, 
and meaneth at his retorne to carie him to his aunsweare for, which 
sheweth most apparantly the continuance of her Ma tes good disposition 
towards the peace, wherein we can assure you, yf there shalbe found 
there the like correspondencie and inclination, there was never greater 
hope of sound and spedy proceeding in the said treatie then at this pre- 


[S. P. O. For. Corresp. Flanders.] 
Burghley to Andreas de Loo, 18 July, 1587. 

Whan I had wrytten thus far and had red it over, being ready to sign 
it, I bethought myself that you wold thynk I had not answered on[e] great 
scruple mentioned in your letter by the duke remembred : which was, that 
he mislyked greatly the actions of Sir Fr. Drake, doutyng that they 
might alienat the Kinges mynd from the inclyning to peace: wherunto 
this answer ought to satisfye you, to be delivered if hereafter the duke 
shall reiterat that scruple. Trew it is, and I avow it uppon my faythe, 
hir Ma^ did send a shipp expressly, with a messadg by letters chargyng 
hym not to shew any act of hostillite, befor he went to Gales; which 
messynger by contrary wyndes cold never come to the place wher he was, 
but was constrayned to come home: and, hearing of Sir Fr. Drake's 
actions, hir Ma^ comaunded the party that retorned to have been punished, 
but that he acquitted himself by the oth of hym self and all his company. 

And so unwyttyng, yea unwyllyng to her Ma^, those actions war 
comitted by Sir Fr. Drake, for the which hir Ma ty is as yet greatly 
offended with him. And now for his bryngyng home of a rych shipp, that 
came out of the Est Indias, I assure we (szc) the Q. knoweth not as yet of 
what vallew hir ladyng is ; but, consideryng the great losses that hir sub- 


jectes had, both by arrest of all their goodes in Spayne, and by takyng of 
ther persons, and oppressing of them to ther ruyn and deth, it can not be 
that this shipp nor many mo the lyk can satisfye ther former losses : and 
therfor, untill a peace may be made and fynished, hir Ma^ can not 
inhibit hir subjectes to sek ther helpes by reprisalls : nether can hir Ma^ 
leave to kepe hir shippes armed, or to send them to the partes of Spayn, 
as long as she shall certenly understand the contynuall preparations that 
the K. maketh, both out of Spayn and Itally, to have an army on the 
seas, with manifest intention to come to the invasion of hir contrees. And 
hereunto we add as an evill sign of inclynation to peace, in that we heare 
that dyvers of rebells ar lately gon out of France to the D. of Parma, 
accompanyed with the B. of Koss disguised, to practise with the D. to 
offend this realm by the way of Scotland. 


[S. P. O. Dom. Corresp.] 

The spoiles of bread, wyne, oile, &c., which was taken at Gales, shold have 
byn sent home as merchaundize ; but, the Quenes shippes beinge victuled 
at their goeinge forth for not above 3 monethes, the same was deteyned to 
supplie their necessitie, whereas the merchauntes shipps were furnished for 
9 monethes victules, to their treble charge, so that they require to have 
recompence accordinglie of the gooddes now sent home. 

And further, whereas there was a pynace sent forth to meete Sir Fraunces 
Drake, which hath taken a pryze worth 5,000 n and better, the saide mer- 
chauntes desire to have there shares thereof accordinge to equitie, so shall 
they be incoraged to sett forward the like services hereafter. 

There be certen thinges concealed, which will secretlie be devided 
amonges theym that have least deserved, whereof a dilligent care for th'ex- 
aminacion is to be hadd. 

(7w dorsOj) The requests of the Merchant Adventurers with Sir Francis 
Drak. 15 June, 1587. 



[S. P. O. For. Corresp. Spain.] 

This shalbe to geve your honor to understand, that the armye which is 
mayd in Lyshbona ys as this ; they have xxiiij shipps, of the wich xv ar 
Portinggalls, and eight Biskins, and one of the Duck of Florence: the which 
shipps ar allredy with ther provicion on bord, and ther saylls a crosse. 
Butt at my coming a way they did want marry ners, for ther staying was 
for the marryners of the shipps which Sir Frances Draycke burnd in 
Cay 11s, and the souldiers to com out of Napells : the which was reported 
ther should corn the third of Napells, and iiij galliasses, and xxx galles : 
the report was they weare all aryved at Calls. And so they maid ther 
accompt to be in Lichbona, to go fourth all together upon S* James' day to 
meate with S r Fraunces Draycke, and to wayte for ther Inges (Indies) fleete. 
Your honor shall understand, that this armye above written it was 
reported before Sir Fraunces Drayckes arry ving in Cayles, that they should 
goe for Ireland, and to carry with them the Iryshe Busshoppe, which is in 
Lichbona, for to proclayme him governor of Ireland under the Poppe. 

Further to lett your honor understand, Sir Frances Draycke arryved in 
Gaskaylles, which ys with in the sight of Lichbona, upon Whitsound Wed- 
nesday, after the Portinggaylles accompte, whiche maide all the people to 
avoyde the towne, both men, wemen, and children ; and carryed with them 
all ther substance. So the cardinall was enformed by fyshermen of the 
same towne, that Sir Frauncis Drayckes stayinge was for the wantonye, 
for the wynning of the countrye ; and, presently upon the same, the cardi- 
nall sent for all his noblemen for to sitt in counsell of Sir Frauncis being 
ther. And that present day they mayd xxiiij Portinggall gentlemen 
captaynes, and mayd proclamacion aboute the cittie for souldyers, and 
some of the said captaynes were sent upp into the countrye to mayke 
souldyers in a readines; so, before my coming away, they had armed 
twooe portes with Portinggalles, which is Gaskalles and Penniche. 

More to geve your honor to understand, that they have maid in Lich- 
bona, since Sir Frauncis Drayckes arryvinge in Caylls, many peces of 
ordnaunce of coper, and of bells which weare broughte out of Flaunders, 
and before these weare made they weare not halffe provyded of ordnaunce 


for ther shipping. Sir Frauncis Draycke haith so touched them in ther 
shipping and castells, that they were allmost unprovyded both of pro- 
vicion and ordnaunce. 

Allso to geve your honor to understande, that the report ys in all gentle- 
mens mowthes in the courte of Portinggaylle, that the Poppe, and the King 
of Spayne, and the King of Fraunce, the Ducke of Florence, with all the 
power they ar hable to mayke, [intend] to congquor England this next 
yeare, and saythe the Prince of Parme shall com Generall, and that the 
Poppe haith graunted him to be Kinge of England, and to ayde and assyst 
him with all the power he is hable to mayke. 

(Endorsed,) July, 1587. 

Keporte of the Spanishe Preparations. 


[Harl. MS. 296, fol. 44.] 

Pompeio Pellegrini to M. Giacopo Mannucci, in London ; dated Florence, 
3 July, 1587 (partly in cipher). 

The attempts of Sir Fr. Drake* upon those coastes [the coasts of 
Spain] do make them all to tremble, and yf, upon his entrynge into the 
porte of Calisf he had ymedyatly landed, he had undowtedly and without 
contrast b put that rytch towne to sacke, and made a grete booty e, whiche 
they all expected, for the succors came not in sixtene howers after; 
nevertheles, he wrytes that the dommage hathe byn more then a million 
of crownes ; thus mutche he wryteth. 

* The words here denoted by italics were originally written in cipher. b qu, contest. 


[Harl. MS. 296, fol. 46.] 

Another Letter, signed B. C., but endorsed "from Mr. Standen" addressed 
to M. Jacopo Mannucci, in London ; under date of Aug. 28, 1587, from 
Italy (partly in cipher}. 

If the flete of the Peru shoulde lykewise fall in Dracke's clowches, we 
Englishe Catholickes here shoulde not be able to shewe our faces, for I 
thincke they woulde stone us to dethe in the stretes ; sutche a generall 
mislyke is growen here of our nation within these two monethes, aboute 
these matters ; for that Italic, more than any other countrey, is damnified 
by that, and the stop of that navigation, whiche, folowinge in this maner, 
will ruyne many a familie that nowe floweth in welthe, and sutche as a, 
whyle agone lawghed at the abasement of Spayne, &c. 


[S. P. O. Domestic Corresp.] 
Report of Gilbert Tison t who came from Lisbone the 3d of September, 1587. 

The losse of the carracke, which S r Fra. Drake did take, breed mar- 
vailous greif, and with dread did the marques departe forth; for yt 
was given him to understand, that there were 3 fleetes of English men of 
warre ; S r Fra. Drake having onlie the charge of the principall fleete. 
So that yt was not feared onlie, but certainlie resolved upon, that the West 
Indies fleete (notwithstanding the wastage of the Marques) would be inter- 
cepted. But about the same time that order cam from the Court of Spaine 
to dispatch that fleete to the Groine, allso came the newes, that 9 West 
Indies men were arrived at S 1 Lucar, but the rest of their fleete, being about 
25 or 26 saile more, were not harde of; for theise ix. shippes were seperated 
from the other by fowle weather, and did not at all touch at the Ilandes : 
neither knewe of the Marques being there. There was great joye of the 
cominge of those ix. shippes, and the captaines and souldiers made there- 


fore a triumph ; now expecting royall payment, whereof before they did 

And for that the newes was come certaine that Sir Fra. Drake was 
retired home, (whom they imagine worketh by a familiar,) they allso 
confirme them selves in hope of the safe arivall of all the rest of the Indies 
fleete, to the K. his settled inrichinge for many yeres to performe his in- 
tent with all. 

At the cominge awaie of this partie he meett with iiij great shippes 
putting into Lisborne, which he understoode to be Indies men, whether 
East or West he knewe not. 


[Lansd. MS. 115, Art. 93.] 

Our dewtyes unto your honors humblie remembred, wee doe in like 
manner signifie, that on Mondaye laste we began the service for discharge 
and view of the goods in this carrocke according to your honors' instruc- 
tions ; whereof yet wee ar able to make verye smale certificate, neither 
wolde wee have byn at this tyme herewith troblesome unto your honors, 
but that Sir Fraunces Drake, the bringer hereof, hath acquaynted us with 
some occations for which hee accoumpteth his presence and speedie repayre 
unto the courte verye necessarye, havinge lefte with us in his steede Mr. 
Thomas Fenner, a gentleman knowen to your honors, verye sufficient ; as 
also one other gentleman of his companye, named Mr. Stallenge, whome 
wee fynd bothe honeste and discreate, who giveth us great helpe to under- 
stand the Spanishe. By Sir Francis Drake wee sende unto your honors a 
booke of the loadinge of the shipp, as also the certificate of such quantitie 
as in this smale tyme hath byn landed by ourselves or by Sir Frauncis 
before our comynge : and therewith also wee have sentt a note of suche 
percells of golde as heitherto wee have founde, which percells of golde hee 
hath thoughte good nowe to carrye with him to presente unto her Ma tie . 
The reste of our tyme shalbe imployed with all diligence untill wee have 
taken a full inventorie of all that is in the bulcke of the shipp, whereof 



wee have yet moved or veiwed verie little : and will not buisye our selves 
miche in breakinge open of chestes untill wee heere agayne from your 
honors ; for wee conceave here wilbe travayle otherwyse to occupie us a 
longe tyme, and in the ende chieflye for committinge the pepper into 
castes and canvas bags, whiche muste be provided ; for it seemeth to lye 
all abroade in the ship. By your honors' nexte advertisementes, which 
wee humbly desyre with your convenient speede, wee expecte your good 
directions what strength shalbe appoynted for whaftinge so miche as your 
pleasures shalbe to have sentt upp by sea : for the transportation whereof 
wee will provide bar ekes heere accordingly e. And so referringe the farder 
satisfyinge of your honors touchinge the state of the shipp and goods unto 
Sir Francis Drake's owne reporte, wee humblye comende your honors to 
the preservation of the Almightie. From the carrocke, (yet named S* 
Philippi,) in the roade neere Salteashe, the xiiij th of July, 1587. 

Your honors' to comaunde, 




14 July, 1587. 

Commissioners for the orderinge of the goods within the prize at Plim- 
mouthe to the Lords of the Counsell. 


[Lansd. MS. 115, No. 89.] 

An Estimate of the Valewe of the Goodes taken in the shippe named 
the S* Phillip, taken by S r Fraunces Drake, Knight, and unladen at 
Saltashe in Julye and Auguste, 1587. 

Firste, the pepper, by the bills of ladinge, dothe apeare 
ta be 4,073 cwt., whereof muche is decayed, and may s. d. 
be esteemed at . . . . . . 40,000 

There is discharged neere 440 balles of annelle of 
1 cwt. the peece, valewed at x s the Ib. w* . . 22,000 


There are neere 115 packes of course callico and pin- s, d. 
tadoes esteemed at 50 U the packe . . . 5,750 

There are about 400 fardelles of synamon, w ch may 
waye 80 lb the peece, at v 8 per Ib. w l . . 8,000 

There maye be in all 20 pipes of cloves, which may 
waye 4 cwt. a pipe, at iiij s per Ib. w e . . 1,600 

There is by the invoize a hundreth tonne of Ibonie 
wood, which may be worthe 10 U the tonne, which is . 1,000 

There are about 110 chestes, which have in theim callico, 
sylke, some spice, and divers other kindes of merchandize, 
which may be worthe 100 11 every cheste . '.v ' . 11,000 

There is in the shipp and discharged certaine silke 
vellett, benjamyn, waxe, lacrie, to the vallewe of by estiina- 
cion . . . ,;.* : - .;-.: . .;>. 2,000 

There is loden 15 pipes of salltpeeter, which waye nere 
8 cwt. a pype, vallewed at 24 11 a pipe, which is . . 360 

There was founde in the shippe neere 1,400 U in ryalles 
of plate, a chaine of gold worth 500 1 ', plate of golde and 
silver, and some jewelles worth by estimacion 2,000 11 -. 8,900 

The shippe with her ordenaunce and furniture maye be 
worth ....... 2,000 

97,610 O a 

This must have been the first rough estimate or valuation of this richly-cargoed prize, 
for we find among the Domestic Correspondence ( S. P. O.), under date of Oct. 8, 1587, 
another and apparently more comprehensive estimate of " all the merchandise discharged 
out of the S l Phillippe in the Ryver of Saltashe." 

Among the articles therein enumerated are starched calico cloth, broad unstarched 
calico, calicos in papers, calico-lawn es, coarse calico towels, painted pintados, calico 
diapers, fine white china silk, stitched calicos called " boultelles," fine calico called 
" canekens," coloured buckrams, coloured " sipres," quilts, turkey carpets, striped coarse 
carpets, coloured tinsel taffetas, changeable silks, and cruel boratos, white sarcenets, bales 
of indigo blue, tons of dry and wet pepper, kintals of cinnamon and cloves, mace and 
benjamin, china packed in barrels, lacquerie, saltpetre, beeswax, nutmegs, ebony, &c. 

The grand total, as given therein, is valued at 108,049 13 11, a prodigiously large 
amount as compared with our present rate of currency. 



[S. P. O. Domestic Corresp.] 

A Note or Inventory e of a smale Casket with divers Jewells, veiwed by us in 
the Towne of Saltashe, the xj th of July e, 1587, contayening asfolloweth: 

Sixe forcks of golde. 

Twelve haftes of golde for kny ves, to saye, sixe of one sorte and sixe of 

One chayne of golde with longe lincks and hookes. 

One chayne of golde, with a tablet, havinge a picture of Christe in 

One chayne, with a tablet of cristall, and a crosse of golde. 

One chayne of golde of esses, with fower diamondes and fower rubyes, 
sett in a tablet. 

One chayne of smale beadestones of golde. 

One smale chayne of golde, with roughe lincks, and a tablet hanging 
unto it, with the picture of Christe and our Ladye. 

Two pendens of golde for the eares. 

Three braceletts of golde, eiche with a crosse of sondrye fashion. 

A girdle of christall garnished with golde. 

A payer of beades of benjamyn garnished with golde. 

Three ringes of golde with stones. 

One rounde hoope of golde inameled with blacke. 

One smale ringe of golde with a pearell. 

Three heads and three rings of golde for walkinge staves. 

One boole of golde and sixe spones of golde. 

Two pomaunders, the one with a smale chayne of golde and garnished 
with golde. 

One pomaunder garnished with golde and a pearell hanging to the 

One smale box with some muskte in it. 

A certayne quantitye in peeces of amber greece. 

One hundred eightye and nyne smale stones, which wee esteeme to be 
gar net ts. 


Thirtye-nyne aggetts, smale and greate. 
Eleaven other stones of a greene cullor, with spotts of read. 
One blood stone. 

One white clothe, in the which there goeth diverse smale stones, 
thougth to be of smale valew. 

The saide caskett, garnished with golde, with two keyes and a smale 
chayne of golde to the same. 

The which caskett and Jewells before rehearsed Sir Frauncis Drake 
hath taken charge to dely ver unto her Ma 116 with his owne handes at 
this presente. 




[S. P. O. Domestic Corresp.] 

Right honourable, my dutye considered, &c. 

According to the valewacion of the goodes of the carricke, the ton- 
nedge and account, with a note of LXXX U for tenne enseignes, signified 
unto your L., yt may be understood (under your honors' correccion) as 

The tonnedge of her Ma tes \ 

shippes and the rest . 4,975 tonnes V 7,623 partes. 

The men for the service 2,648 men ) 

HerMa tes shipping, 2,100 tonns, and 1,020 
men, ys 3,120 

The L. Admyrall, 175 tonns, and 115 
men, ys -< 290 

Sir Francis Drake, 600 tonns, and 619 
men, ys * 1,219 

The Marchauntes, 2,100 tonns, and 894 
men, ys 2,994 


The goodes, as by the valewacion therof, amounteth 9. d. 
to the some of . . . . . . 108,049 13 11 

Wherof, according to the said proporcion, ther ys dewe 

unto her Ma tie ; . . . . . 44,223 8 2 

The charges in the said account mencionede, after the rate 1,524 411 

Eesteth, the same being disductede, as appereth . 42,699 3 3 

And abatinge from the rest of the shippes 
over and above her Ma ties , 400 tonns, which ys 
supposede they may be over ratede, ther maye 
remayne, shippinge and men . . 7,223 partes. 

Whereof by the said proporcion her Ma tie ys to have . 46,672 8 10 
The charges therof, after the rate . . . 1,608 13 I 

Resteth dewe, by this accompte as appereth . 45,063 15 9 

So that the differens yeldeth unto her Ma tie . . 2,364 12 6 

(Indorse,) 24 Oct. 1587. 

Stallenges* paper of the Phillip, with a note of the porcion dew to her 
, being set thereon. 

* The Mr. Stallenge mentioned at p. 49. 

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